Indus Valley Civilization is one of the four earliest civilizations (Mesopotamian or Sumerian Civilization, Egyptian Civilization and Chinese Civilization) of the world.
Summary of Harappa Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization)
1. Civilization is belongs to Bronze Age (Chalcolithic Age).
2. The known extent of this civilization in the west is up to Sutkagendor in Baluchistan; Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh) in the east; Daimabad (Maharshtra) in South; and Manda(Jammu & Kashmir) in the north.
3. Civilization was dominated by the peasants and merchants and thus also called as an agro-commercial civilization.
4. It is also called as Harappan Civilization because site was first discovered through excavation in 1921 under the supervision of Daya Ram Sahni.
5. Indus Valley Civilization can dated around 2500-1750 BC on the basis of radiocarbon dating.
6.Town Planning was the most distinctive features of the civilization. Town were divided into two part- Citadel (Occupied by ruling class) & Lower Town (Inhabited by common people)
7. Dhaulavira is the only site of the civilisation where city was divided into three parts.
8. Chanhudaro was the only city without a citadel.
9. Systematic town planning was based on grid system; burnt bricks were used to construct houses; well-managed drainage system; fortified Citadel; highly urbanised; absence of iron implements.
10. Indus people were the first who produces cotton, which Greeks termed as Sindom(derived from Sindh).
11. They produced wheat and barley on large scale. The other crops grown were pulses, cereals, cotton, dates, melons, pea, seasum and mustard.
12. Animals known were oxen, sheep, buffaloes, goats, pigs, elephants, dogs, cats, asses and camels.
13. Humpless bull or Unicorn was the most important animal.
14. Well-developed external and internal trade but the mode of payment was Barter System.
15. People of the civilization had developed their own kind of weighing and measurement system which was the multiple of 16.
16. Dead Bodies were buried or cremated in North-South Orientation.
17. The greatest artistic of the Harappan culture were the seals, made of steatite. Harappan script is pictographic but yet to be deciphered. The script was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second line. This style is called Boustrophedon.
18. Origin of the ‘Swastika’ symbol can be traced to the Indus Valley Civilization.
19. There was prevalence of Mother Goddess (Matridevi or Shakti) known through figurines and also evidences of the prevalence of Yoni (Female Sex Organ) worship.
20. The Chief male deity was the ‘Pashupati Mahadeva’ i.e. lord of Animals (Proto-Shiva)represented in seals as sitting in yogic posture; he is surrounded by four animals(elephant, tiger, rhino and buffalo) and two deer appear at his feet. There was also prevalence of Phallic (Lingam) worship.
21. Occupations practiced were spinning, weaving, boat making, goldsmiths, making pottery and seal making.